The accessibility of the use of eLearning is unlimited. You have access to education and training at your own pace and just in time. Besides, with technology, eLearning is changing and evolving so that students can use this method anywhere and anytime; give them precisely what they need, exactly when they need it. However, the eLearning course is more than words and audio on a screen. The learning materials should be strategically and carefully designed with the appropriate instructional design principles. These principles guide each course, adjust, and personalize to create the most impactful learning experience. The balance and the combination of all the necessary principles are maintained and, therefore, take every opportunity to involve and educate a student.

According to Richard E. Mayer, the principles that shape the design and organization of multimedia presentations. This LO is based on a story that explains the uses and conjugations of the verbs Ser and Estar. We are applying:

1- The multimedia principle when we use words and graphics together.

2- The principles of contiguity, because with the conjugation of words and graphics together, we can relate the words to the graphic, like the storyboard. Therefore, we are talking about

a) Principle of spatial contiguity because we keep along the words that explain a concept and the images that accompany them, (storyboard). In this way, it will facilitate the student’s ability to understand and process all the information displayed.

b) The principle of temporal contiguity, we can present the words (dialogue) and images simultaneously, and it will be easy to process that information instead of one by one.

3- The principle of redundancy will explain pictures with words in audio or text. If the elements complement each other, instead of overloading all the available details, using a less focus is more. It is just listening to the audio with the subtitle turned off; the students will be more focused on the subject.

4- The principle of segmentation allows us to manage complexity by dividing the lesson into parts. In addition, it helps to reinforce this process, facilitating learning with user-oriented segments, and gives students more control over what they need.

When the audiovisual study is applied, the students make a more significant mental effort; so, it denotes better learning. I think that the use of a digital “agent” instead of an image or a video of the speaker is still included in the Principle of the image, in the case of making a video about this story, more audiovisual. At the same time, it seems to cross with these principles, which has been analyzed. I often see videos with animated “talking heads” (such as those created in Powtoon) that provide audio and text versions of their content at the same time, which seems useful, but also faces the principle of redundancy and the principle of modality. Another technological challenge that meets some of the advice offered by the Theory of multimedia learning is the evaluability: when we add text and voice, we are helping to ensure that people with hearing or vision problems can consume the content, but the theory of Multimedia learning tells us NOT to do this.

This storyboard targets verb conjugation and choosing between ser and estar in the context of responding to questions.  The students can create a conversation or multiple conversations between characters, based on the storyboard. The storyboard must use all categories of ser and estar. It should also target various forms of the two verbs. Structured as a conversation, students must take into account how questions are asked and answered, besides just choosing between ser and estar correctly. Sometimes it is helpful for students to pretend they are speaking to a friend in order to determine the appropriate subject and verb conjugation. To reinforce the concept, below each example students can write the ser or estar category.

Activity: Students create and write full conversation as modeled.


Walsh, K. (2018, July 4). Mayer’s 12 Principles of Multimedia Learning are a Powerful Design Resource | Emerging Education Technologies. Retrieved from

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